Animal Mummies
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt

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What Mummies Tell Us
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
The primary source for figuring out how the Egyptians mummified their dead is the mummies themselves. What distinguishes mummies from the Old Kingdom, the New Kingdom, and the Late Period, respectively? How have Egyptologists reconstructed this ancient art? By the end of this lecture, you will be able to look…
The Hidden Treasures of the Cairo Museum
Take a private trip into the unknown basement rooms of the famous Cairo Museum to find many forgotten Egyptian treasures, sarcophagi, and mummies buried under decades of dust.
The First Ptolemies
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
The Greek kings known as the Ptolemies ran Egypt like a business. Taxes were heavy; government was oppressive. There are two great Hellenistic achievements, however: the Pharos Lighthouse and the famed Library of Alexandria.
Paracas—Mummies, Shamans, and Severed Heads
Investigate the fascinating Paracas tombs of the 1st millennium B.C., which contain richly adorned mummies, and grasp the significance of mummification. Study the elaborate iconography of Paracas textiles, the meaning of the supernatural beings they depict, and the practice of head hunting as a means to control the spirits of…
South America’s First People
The earliest evidence of humans in the Americas comes not from North America, but from Chile. Investigate the important Monte Verde site and its view into everyday life 15,000 years ago. Learn also about "Quilcas" cave art, the astonishing Chinchorro mummies--predating Egypt's-- and evidence of early agriculture and trade at…
The Middle Ptolemies - The Decline
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
A TV show about the Middle Ptolemies might be called "Lifestyles of the Rich and Murderous." With few exceptions, the members of this dysfunctional dynasty were violent, debauched, and generally neglectful of the country they ruled. The Egyptians hated them and frequently rebelled, forcing some to flee for their lives.…
Cuzco and the Tawantinsuyu Empire
The city of Cuzco stands as the supreme achievement in architecture and aesthetics of pre-Columbian South America. Study the city's astounding features, such as its hydraulic engineering, anti-seismic construction, and its perfectly fitting stonework that defies explanation. Learn also about the culture of ancestral mummies, the golden Coricancha temple, and…
In the Valley of the Kings
Enter the Valley of the Kings to relive the Tutankamon excavation, and experience first-hand the latest discoveries of the mummy of Queen Hatshepsut and the KV63 tomb.
Cleopatra's Family
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
For a Ptolemy, dodging assassination by one's own kin was often the hardest part of ruling. Learn how Cleopatra's father managed this task, and trace the course of Egypt's growing - and ultimately fatal - interaction with the rising power of Rome.
Mummification - How We Know What We Know
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
Mummification was a trade secret. The Egyptians left no records of how they did it. Detective work is needed, and fortunately, there are four papyri that offer some clues.
Making a Modern Mummy
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
Here you'll learn how Professor Brier mummified a human cadaver in the ancient Egyptian manner to determine how the Egyptian embalmers did it. The purpose of the project was not to make a mummy, but to gain knowledge of the instruments, substances, and surgical procedures used during the process.
Tuthmosis III - King At Last
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
For 22 years, Tuthmosis III was second fiddle to his aunt Hatshepsut, who ruled as a king although she was a woman. When she died and he ruled by himself, he became one of the greatest military pharaohs Egypt had ever known. Learn what it meant to be a great…