Everything in This Lecture Is False

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Study the discovery that destroyed the dream of an axiomatic system that could prove all mathematical truths - Kurt Godel's demonstration that mathematical consistency is a mirage and that the price for avoiding paradoxes is incompleteness. Outline Godel's proof, seeing how it relates to the liar's paradox from Lecture 1.
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Leap into puzzles and mind-benders that teach you the rudiments of game theory. Divide loot with bloodthirsty pirates, ponder the two-envelope problem, learn about Newcomb's paradox, visit the island where everyone has blue eyes, and try your luck at prisoner's dilemma.
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Discover the timeless riddles and paradoxes that have confounded the greatest philosophical, mathematical, and scientific minds in history. Stretching your mind to try to solve a puzzle, even when the answer eludes you, can help sharpen your mind and focus - and it's an intellectual thrill!
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Tour a series of philosophical problems from 2,400 years ago: Zeno's paradoxes of motion, space, and time. Explore solutions using calculus and other techniques. Then look at the deeper philosophical implications, which have gained new relevance through the discoveries of modern physics.
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The paradoxes associated with infinity are... infinite! Begin with strategies for fitting ever more visitors into a hotel that has an infinite number of rooms, but where every room is already occupied. Also sample a selection of supertasks, which are exercises with an infinite number of steps that are completed…
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See how the founders of the U.S. struggled with a mathematical problem rife with paradoxes: how to apportion representatives to Congress based on population. Consider the strange results possible with different methods and the origin of the approach used now. As with voting, discover that no perfect system exists.
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Consider the complexities of topological surfaces. For example, a Mobius strip is non-orientable, which means that left and right switch as you move around it. Go deeper into this and other paradoxes, and learn how to determine the shape of the planet on which you live; after all, it could…
When Measurement Is Impossible
Prove that some sets can't be measured - a result that is crucial to understanding the Banach-Tarski paradox, the strangest theorem in all of mathematics, which is presented in Lecture 23. Start by asking why mathematicians want to measure sets. Then learn how to construct a non-measurable set.