Episode 5 of Geometry

We commonly define the Pythagorean theorem using the formula a2 + b2 = c2. But Pythagoras himself would have been confused by that. Explore how this famous theorem can be explained using common geometric shapes (no fancy algebra required), and how it's a critical foundation for the rest of geometry.

Running Time

29 mins

Year

2014

Kanopy ID

1338397

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The Joy of Geometry

Geometry is based on a handful of definitions and axioms involving points, lines, and angles. These lead to important conclusions about the properties of polygons. This lecture uses geometric reasoning to derive the Pythagorean theorem and other interesting results.

Introduction to Scale

If you double the side-lengths of a shape, what happens to its area? If the shape is three-dimensional, what happens to its volume? In this lecture, you explore the concept of scale. You use this idea to re-derive one of our fundamental assumptions of geometry, the Pythagorean theorem, using the…

What Is the Sine of 1°?

So far, you've seen how to calculate the sine, cosine, and tangents of basic angles (0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg, and 90deg). What about calculating them for other angles--without a calculator? You'll use the Pythagorean theorem to come up with formulas for sums and differences of the trig identities, which then…

In lecture 6, you saw how 17th-century mathematician Rene Descartes united geometry and algebra with the invention of the coordinate plane. Now go a step further and explore the power and surprises that come from using the complex number plane. Examine how using complex numbers can help solve several tricky…

Exploring Geometric Constructions

Let's say you don't have a marked ruler to measure lengths or a protractor to measure angles. Can you still draw the basic geometric shapes? Explore how the ancient Greeks were able to construct angles and basic geometric shapes using no more than a straight edge for marking lines and…

Continue the work of classification with triangles. Find out what mathematicians mean when they use words like scalene, isosceles, equilateral, acute, right, and obtuse. Then, learn how to use the Pythagorean theorem to determine the type of triangle (even if you don't know the measurements of the angles).

The Geometry of a Circle

Explore the world of circles! Learn the definition of a circle as well as what mathematicians mean when they say things like radius, chord, diameter, secant, tangent, and arc. See how these interact, and use that knowledge to prove the inscribed angle theorem and Thales' theorem.

Tilings, Platonic Solids, and Theorems

You've seen geometric tiling patterns on your bathroom floor and in the works of great artists. But what would happen if you made repeating patterns in 3-D space? In this lecture, discover the five platonic solids! Also, become an artist and create your own beautiful patterns--even using more than one…

Distance, Midpoints, and Folding Ties

Learn how watching a fly on his ceiling inspired the mathematician Rene Descartes to link geometry and algebra. Find out how this powerful connection allows us to use algebra to calculate distances, midpoints, and more.

The Geometry of Figurate Numbers

Ponder another surprising appearance of geometry--the mathematics of numbers and number theory. Look into the properties of square and triangular numbers, and use geometry to do some fancy arithmetic without a calculator.

Delve deeper into the connections between algebra and geometry by looking at lines and their equations. Use the three basic assumptions from previous lectures to prove that parallel lines have the same slope and to calculate the shortest distance between a point and a line.

Bending the Axioms—New Geometries

Wrap up the course by looking at several fun and different ways of reimagining geometry. Explore the counterintuitive behaviors of shapes, angles, and lines in spherical geometry, hyperbolic geometry, finite geometry, and even taxi-cab geometry. See how the world of geometry is never a closed-book experience.

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