World War I was sparked by nationalism and a complex web of political and military alliances. Soldiers in Europe fought the first modern war as industrial-age ingenuity sparked terror in the guise of warplanes, flamethrowers and chemical weapons. On the U.S. home front, women assumed new roles, the suffrage movement gained steam, and African Americans migrated to fill jobs in the North. Other changes were less positive, as racial tensions and the erosion of civil liberties threatened the country.
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